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Nutritional deficiencies

WHAT ARE NUTRITIONAL DEFICIENCIES?

There are 2 types of nutrients:

MACROnutrients

PROTEINS

CARBOHYDRATES

FATS

MICROnutrients

MINERALS: Ca, Mg

TRACE ELEMENTS: Zn, Fe, Cu, I

VITAMINS: Vit D, Vit C, Vit B

More than 2 billion people in the world today suffer from micronutrient deficiencies caused largely by a dietary deficiency of vitamins and minerals. Contrary to previous thinking, it is not uniquely the concern of poor countries but it represents also a public health problem in some industrialized countries 1,2.

‘MALNUTRITION’ = FIRST CAUSE OF DEATHS IN THE WORLD (2017)1,3

11 MILLIONS OF DEATHS
+ 255 MILLIONS OF DEATH DISABILITY-ADJUSTED LIFE YEARS
Dead per 100 000 population:

Risk factors: Top 3

1) Diet high in sodium.
2) Diet poor in whole grains (deficiencies in Iron, zinc, vit B1, B2, B6, Folates).
3) Diet poor in fruits (deficiencies in Vit C, vit A, folic acid).

WHAT ARE THE CAUSES OF THESE NUTRITIONAL DEFICIENCIES?1

VARIOUS NUTRITIONAL DEFICIENCIES CAN HAVE DIFFERENT CAUSES:
DECREASED INTAKES
  • Malabsorption
  • Drug/nutrients interactions
  • Monotous diet
  • Low intake of animal source food
  • Poverty, Poor economic statuts
  • Seasonal variations in food availability
  • Food shortage
INCREASED LOSSES
  • Menstrual
  • Cycle Diarrhea
  • Parasitic infections
INCREASED NEEDS
  • Pregnancy
  • Breastfeeding
  • Growth period
  • Acute and chronic diseases

WHAT ARE THE CONSEQUENCES OF THESE NUTRITIONAL DEFICIENCIES?1

  • DENTAL DISEASES

  • ANEMIA

  • COGNITIF DISORDERS

  • HEPATO-DIGESTIVE DISORDERS

  • CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES

  • CANCERS

  • NEURAL TUBE DEFECTS

  • VISUAL DISORDERS

  • STUNTED GROWTH

  • MENTAL RETARDATION

  • BIRTH DEFECTS

  • OSTEOPOROSIS

  • SKIN DISORDERS

  • OEDEMA

References:
1. Lindsay A. et al. Guidelines on food fortification with micronutrients. WHO Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data. 2006. 3-86.
2. Anuraj H Shankar. Mineral Deficiencies. Hunter’s Tropical Medicine and Emerging Infectious Disease (Ninth Edition) 2013, Pages 1003-1010
3. Afshin, A., Sur, P.J., Fay, K.A., Cornaby, L., Ferrara, G., Salama, J.S., Mullany, E.C., Abate, K.H., Abbafati, C., Abebe, Z., et al. Health effects of dietary risks in 195 countries, 1990–2017: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017. The Lancet 0. (2019).